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Europe’s Oldest City Uncovered near Varna, Bulgaria

Archaeologists at Bulgaria’s National Institute of Archaeology claim to have unearthed Europe’s oldest prehistoric town in Varna region of Bulgaria. The archaeologists have been excavating the site, located near Varna, since 2005.

Excavations at a site near the town of Provadia in northeastern Bulgaria have revealed the remains of two-storey buildings and stone walls, which archaeologists say date back to 4,700 to 4,200 BC.

“Three successive fortification systems were identified – the first one included a wooden-earthen palisade, and the other two were probably entirely made of stone. They were built and used in the Middle and Late Chalcolthic (4700-4200 BC). The stone walls are two to three metres thick and have bastions,” researcher Vasil Nikolov reports in the paper, Salt, early complex society, urbanisation: Provadia-Solnitsata (5500-4200 BC).

He noted that further successive settlements remain unexcavated but the remains of several buildings identified so far belong to the three main prehistoric periods – Late Neolithic, Middle and Late Chalcolithic.

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